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Student Papers

The following student papers were completed during spring 2011, fall 2013, and fall 2014 as part of assignments for Dr. Pettegrew’s History 305 class (“Historical Archaeology”), as well as a Professional Development Experience in archaeology and history completed with Dr. Pettegrew and Mr. Ken Marks of the Oakes Museum (Riddle).  For some of the papers, we include abstracts and links to the full-text PDF versions.  These should form a useful primer for future work:

Rachel Book, “Stouffer Farm: A Historical Investigation of German Farming Tradition,” Fall 2014 [Full PDF Document]

Jonathan Conrady and James Mueller, “Connected and Consumed: An Analysis of Stouffer Farm during the Agricultural Revolution of 1860-1920,” Fall 2014 [Full PDF Document]

Laura Passmore, “Stouffer Farm in its Context,” Fall 2014 [Full PDF Document]

Alyssa Vorbeck, “Public Archaeology Paper,” Fall 2014 [Full PDF Document]

David Crout, “Ground Penetrating Radar Analysis: Asper’s Cemetery,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Kristen College, “Asper Cemetery: A Historical and Genealogical Investigation,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Sarah Day, “The Stouffer Family Geography: Tracking the Stouffers through Time,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Shane Reed, “Asper Cemetery GPR Paper,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Megan Steves, “Preservation and Conservation in Asper Cemetery,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Tyler Stone, “Asper Cemetery: Maps and Aerial Photographs,” Fall 2013 [Full PDF Document]

Colin Riddle, “Stauffer Farm: An Archaeological Primer to Stauffer Farm Research 2011” [Full PDF Document]

Tara Anderson, Nelly Hoppes, Josh Krosskove, and Schuyler Miller, “Local History of Dillsburg, Centered Around the Stauffer Farm”, Spring 2011.

ABSTRACT: The Stauffer Farm is an integral part to forming the local history of Dillsburg and even the wider history of York County. Dillsburg, founded in 1740 by Matthew Dill, exemplified one of the many frontier, religion-driven communities of the American colonies at this time. In a time of great reliance on agriculture, a closer look at this small town reveals quite an opposite perspective; it became a little industrial area and a trading outpost. There is sufficient evidence that saw and grist mills were regular occurrences in Dillsburg, and it is believed, and there is evidence, that there was, in fact, a mill of some kind on the Stauffer Farm. There is evidence of multiple uses for the farm throughout the years and changing ownership, and it is believed, and backed by proof, that it could also have been the home of a blacksmith shop in later years. Though all of the forms of use can be supported, it must be remembered that they all remain speculation, as the artifacts found within the context of the Stauffer Farm cannot be unquestionably linked to either a mill or a blacksmith shop. The findings along with research strongly suggest the presence of such establishments, but due to lack of assistance from primary textual resources, and the innately flawed system of archaeology which disallows contexts far removed from the present to ever fully be recovered, the history of the Stauffer Farm, and consequently the Dillsburg area, may never be documented in their entirety. 

Katie Garland, Naomi Guerrasio, and Matt Herring, “The Stauffer Farm and Its Connections to the Outside World,” Spring 2011. 

ABSTRACT: Maps and cemetery data imply that York County has been a dynamic environment since its founding in 1749.  The community that once inhabited the area was close-knit, and there is evidence to suggest that the needs of the community changed throughout time.  Based on map data, it can be concluded that the Stauffers did own land near the Bermudian Creek.  The Bermudian Creek supported mills which were an integral part of early towns. There is evidence that a mill existed on the Stauffer farm which sheds light onto the life of the Stauffers and the use of outbuilding.  Made in central Pennsylvania, the redware pottery found at the site suggests that the Stauffers used simple, utilitarian pottery for their food preparations.  The iron artifacts also show that the people of York had simple tastes.  However, the few bits of ceramic imply that, when possible, the Stauffers splurged on gentile objects.  The shoes, made around the turn of the 20th century, illustrate a different phase of life on the farm and indicate that the building was later used as a trash dump.  [Full PDF Document]

Lynn George, Abby Parker, Jenny Schmalbach, and Megan Sullivan, “A People’s History of the Stauffer Farm,” Spring 2011.

ABSTRACT: After reanalyzing the outbuilding and collecting research on the Stauffer and Hoffman family, the research reaffirms that the outbuilding was used as a late 19/20th century blacksmith shop and washroom. The family history of the farm is complex and hard to discover, but a family tree of the Abraham and Christina Stauffer, their children, and Christina’s family was created from the research discovered. More knowledge was learned about the Hoffman family thanks to an interview with Ralph Hoffman, who explained many of the artifacts that were discovered in the outbuilding, bringing life to the outbuilding, and unraveling some of the mysteries of the past 250 years. Our research of the Stauffer Farm gives us insight into the lives of the other families within Franklin Township and York County, and will help us continue to reconstruct the past of the local area. [Full PDF Document]

Paul Kio, Ashley King, Megan Keller, and Adam Barron, “The Stauffer Farm Mill,” Spring 2011.

ABSTRACT: The 19th Century Grist Mill was crucial to the development of both regional and local life in the state of Pennsylvania. Grist mills played a role in both industry and the establishment of local communities and contributed a great deal in the prosperity of the state. Grist mills were built in a variety of different sizes to facilitate the needs of the population and industry around them. A typical grist mill during the 19th century came in two different sizes. The first size was in order to support smaller communities. During the 19th century many families sought to make a living from operating grist mills to supply local townships. The second type of grist mill was much larger in nature and tended to support the larger demands in its industry. In order to fully understand the complexity and role of the 19th century grist mill, it must be analyzed at a variety of different levels. The purpose of this research project was to research the 19th century grist mill from a multiplicity of different angles. The research conducted analyzed the grist mill from an architectural perspective, a process perspective (processes of the mill), a local perspective (analyzing local mills), and testimonial perspective. Analyzing the different facets of 19th Century Grist Mills allowed for an in depth look at not only the mills as a structure, but the many industrial and social roles it fulfilled during its operations. [Full PDF Document]

Annie Minicuci, Laura Goodling, and Cady Grau, “Writing Local Histories: The Stauffer Farm and its Cemetery,” Spring 2011.

ABSTRACT: Writing local histories about past human landscapes is a challenging task that often involves deciphering conflicting data. Our group had to work through several contradictory assumptions, inferences, and evidences; on more than one occasion we were forced to abandon our previous assumptions when confronted with new evidence and start from the very beginning. We consulted primary sources, drove around historic York County, and examined material evidence in order to create a comprehensive evolution of space, community, and property from the early 1700’s till present. [Full PDF Document]

Caroline Wulf, Andrew Ausel, and Amanda Micieli, “Writing Local History,” Spring 2011.

ABSTRACT: Since it’s founding in the late 17th century by William Penn, Pennsylvania has left a legacy of influential and successful farming. Leading the nation in farmland, its rolling hill and rich soil have been attracting farmers for centuries. One of the groups drawn to the state were the Germans. From the moment they established themselves, Pennsylvania Germans have taken full advantage of the opportunities the land has to offer, improving their farming methods and supporting themselves throughout generations. With an efficient, reliable family unit, work on the farm allowed Pennsylvania Germans to be self-reliant and interdependent. Responsibilities may have been distributed according to gender and sex, but every member of the family was expected to fulfill their duties on the farm.  After researching at The Cumberland Historical Society and the York County Historical Society, we gained a broader view of the life of a Pennsylvania farmer throughout the centuries. Through this broader view, we were able to put the Stouffer Farm into a perspective and attempt to solve several of the outbuilding’s mysteries. We believe that the east room was used as a washhouse under the Hoffman family, and perhaps by the family who owned the property prior to them. There is also evidence to support the theory that the west room was once a blacksmith’s shop. Based of an interview with Ralph Hoffman and research on typical blacksmiths shops of the 19th century, we have concluded that although the Hoffmans did not use the outbuilding as a blacksmiths shop, a preceding family did. Through conducting research we sought to reconcile material evidence found through excavations with textual evidence acquired through research of the history of Pennsylvania and York County. We discovered that as archaeologists, we needed both material evidence and textual evidence to answer questions raised throughout our excavations and develop a full contextual history of the Stauffer Farm outbuilding.  [Full PDF Document]

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